iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They run Apple’s iOS mobile operating system. The first generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, and there have been multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases since.
The user interface is built around the device’s multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPhone has Wi-Fi and can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video (though this was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS), take photos, play music, send and receive email, browse the web, send and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, and receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, and social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps. As of January 2017, Apple’s App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone.
Apple has released eleven generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the eleven major releases of the iOS operating system. The original 1st-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, and was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, and the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri. The iPhone 5 featured a taller, 4-inch display and Apple’s newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, and the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal. They were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7 and 5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, and new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models. The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, and therefore, no Touch ID.
The original iPhone was described as “revolutionary” and a “game-changer” for the mobile phone industry. Newer iterations have also garnered praise, and the iPhone’s success has been credited with helping to make Apple one of the world’s most valuable publicly traded companies.
History and availability
Development of what was done in the iPhone started in 2004, when Apple started collecting a team of 1,000 employees to work on the highly publicized “Project Purple”,  including Jonathan Ive, the designer behind the iMac and iPod.  ] Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet (which Apple eventually revisited in the form of the iPad) and a phone.  Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless (now AT & T Mobility) at the time-an estimated development cost of US $ 150 million over thirty months. 
According to Steve Jobs, the “i” word in “iMac” (and hence “iPod”, “iPhone” and “iPad”) stands for internet, individual, instruction, inform and inspire.  
Apple rejected the “design by committee” approach that Motorola RKR E1, a largely unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1’s firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple’s iPod nano.  
Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone’s hardware and software in-house   and even paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue (until the iPhone 3G),  in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. 
Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco.  The two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US $ 499 and an 8 GB model at US $ 599 (both requiring a 2-year contract), went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up the stores nationwide.  The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone results in the media dubbing it the ‘Jesus phone’.   Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, France, and Germany in November 2007, and Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008.
Worldwide iPhone availability:
iPhone available since its original release
iPhone available from the release of iPhone 3G
Before the release of the iPhone, handset manufacturers such as Nokia and Motorola were enjoying record sales of cell phones more than fashion and brand rather than technological innovation.  The smartphone market, based on the BlackBerry OS and Windows Mobile devices, was a “staid, corporate-led smartphone paradigm” focused on enterprise needs. Phones were used during the carrier and business limits which were conservative with regards to bandwidth usage and battery life.   Phones were sold in a very large number of models, often segmented by marketing strategy, confusing customers and sapping engineering resources.   For example, phones marketed at business often deliberately stripped of cameras or the ability to play music and games.  Apple’s approach was deliberately simplified its product line by offering just one model for all customers, while making it an expensive, high-end product.
Apple’s marketing, developing from the success of iPod campaigns, allowed to be a mass-market product with many buyers on launch day. Some market research has found that, unusually for a technology product, iPhone users are disproportionately female.  Ars Technica reported in 2012 that Apple had avoided ‘patronizing’ marketing to female customers, many of its competitors by a practice used (often to sell low-quality, high-priced products). 
When then-CEO of Research in Motion Mike Lazaridis pried open an iPhone, his impression was of a Mac stuffed in a cellphone, as it used much more memory and processing power than the smartphones on the market at the time.   ] With its capacitive touchscreen and consumer-friendly design, the iPhone fundamentally changed the mobile industry, with Steve Jobs declaring in 2007, that the phone was not just a communication tool but a way of life. 
The dominant mobile operating systems at the time such as Symbian, BlackBerry OS, and Windows Mobile did not work. These operating systems never focus on applications and developers, and due to incompetence among manufacturers as well as the complexity of development on their low-memory hardware, they have never developed a thriving ecosystem like Apple’s App Store or Android’s Google Play.   ] The iPhone OS (renamed iOS in 2010) was designed as a robust OS with capabilities such as multitasking and graphics in order to meet future consumer demands.  Many services were provided by mobile carriers, who were often extensively customized devices. Meanwhile, Apple’s decision to base its OS on OS X had the unexpected benefit of OS X developers to iOS extension in rapidly expanding.  Rival manufacturers have been forced to spend more on software and development costs The iPhone’s success has led to a decline in sales of high-end fashion phones and business-oriented smartphones such as Vertu and BlackBerry, as well as Nokia.   Nokia realizes the limitations of its operating system Symbian and attempted to develop a more advanced system, Maemo, without success. It is finally agreed to a technology-sharing deal and then a takeover from Microsoft. 
Prior to the iPhone, “Handsets were viewed largely as cheap, disposable lures, massively subsidized to snare subscribers and lock them in the carriers’ proprietary services.” However, according to Wired, “Apple retained complete control over the design, manufacturing, and marketing of the iPhone”, meaning that it and not the carrier will control the software updates, and by extension security patches. By contrast, Google has allowed carriers and OEMs to dictate the “pace of upgrades and pre-load phones with their own software on top of Android”. As a result, many Android OEMs often lag months behind Google’s release of next iteration of Android; Although Nexus and Pixel devices are guaranteed 2 years of operating system updates However, Apple has supported older versions of iPhones for over 4 years
The iPhone has a multifunctional touchscreen The first generation had a resolution of 480 x 320 pixels (165 ppi). From the iPhone 4 the resolution is quadrupled to 960 x 640 pixels (330 ppi) and from the iPhone 5 the resolution is 1136 x 640 pixels (326 ppi). Apple calls this Retina Display because the pixels (four times as much as with the iPhone 3GS) are now so close together that human eye can no longer be seen as individual pixels. The screen is not operated with a stylusbut with one finger; with a second finger One finger is used when operating simple functions; two fingers were used, for example, to zoom in and out on photos, videos and websites in the Safari web browser. The technology of ‘two-finger control’ was introduced by the company a few years ago with the touchpads of notebooks. This technology goes a lot more with the iPhone Apple calls this technology Multi-Touch
The default browser of the iPhone, Safari, does not support Adobe Flash.      The iPhone plays videos only in H.264 and MP4 format. A separate YouTube app was sent to iOS 5 with iOS. It played YouTube videos offered in the H.264 format instead of the usual Flash format at the time. In addition, Flash is not used on the YouTube website if you visit the site from a mobile device. Nowadays YouTube is no longer included as standard for the iPhone, the renewed YouTube app from Google can still be downloaded from the App Store.
The iPhone 2G and 3G have a digital 2 megapixel camera, which only takes pictures. The camera of the iPhone 3GS has a 3 megapixel camera that also records videos in VGA resolution (640×480). The iPhone 4 has a 5 megapixel camera and can also make videos in HD quality (1280×720). The iPhone 4S and the iPhone 5 have an 8 megapixel camera that can film in full HD quality (1920×1080). The iPhone 5c has the same camera as the iPhone 5, while the iPhone 5s can also be used as an additional option in slow motion. The lens is, as usual, on the back From the iPhone 4 there is also a lens on the front of the device for video calling through FaceTime.
The iPhone can connect to other devices via Internet, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.
Furthermore, the device has a remote detector, which automatically switches off the touch screen and pauses the volume of the music from the loudspeaker as soon as the telephone rings and the user faces by the device.
The iPhone has an electronic gyroscope based on accelerometers. This determines the position of: standing, lying or slanted The user interface is adjusted accordingly. An example is the scroll function: portrait mode. The system then simulates, as it were, a sort of flywheel on which menus are arranged; One can give this flywheel a “move” to quickly scroll the menus, or “slow down” to see them. In the landscape mode, for example, the iPhone automatically switches to the “Cover Flow” interface, which you use, just like with iTunes, can browse through album art
In 2008, Apple released a software development package (SDK) for writing iPhone and iPod touch applications. With this package companies can make special iPhone applications A basic package was sold for $ 99; the extended version for $ 299
On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G in twenty-two countries, including the original six.  Apple released the iPhone 3G inwards of eighty countries and territories.  Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it later in June, July, and August, beginning with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many will-be users objected to the iPhone’s cost ,  and 40% of users have household income in US $ 100,000. 
The back of the original first generation was made The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to the strength of the GSM signal.  The iPhone 3G was available in an 8 GB black model, or a black or white option for the 16 GB model. The iPhone 3GS was available in both colors, regardless of storage capacity.
The iPhone 4 has an aluminosilicate glass front and back with a stainless steel edge that serves as an antenna. It was first available in black; The white version was announced, but not released until April 2011, 10 months later. Users of the iPhone 4 reported dropped / disconnected telephone calls when holding their phones in a certain way. This becomes known as antennagate
Announced during a media event that it was reached an agreement with Apple and will begin selling a CDMA iPhone 4. Verizon said it will be available for pre-order on February 3, with a release set for February 10.   In February 2011, the Verizon iPhone accounted for 4.5% of all iPhone ad impressions in the US on Millennial Media’s mobile ad network. 
From 2007 to 2011, Apple spent $ 647 million on advertising for the iPhone in the US
On Tuesday, September 27, Apple sent invitations for a press event held on October 4, 2011, at 10:00 am at the Cupertino Headquarters to announce the next generation of iPhone, which turned out to be the iPhone 4S. Over 1 million 4S models were sold in the first 24 hours after its release in October 2011.  Due to large volumes of the iPhone being manufactured and its high selling price, Apple was the largest mobile handset vendor in the world by revenue, 2011, surpassing long-time leader Nokia.  American carrier C Spire Wireless announced that the iPhone 4S on October 19, 2011. 
In January 2012, Apple reported its best quarterly earnings ever, with 53% of its revenue coming from the sale of 37 million iPhones, at an average selling price of about $ 660 The average selling price has been fairly constant for most of the phone’s life, hovering between $ 622 and $ 660.  The production price of the iPhone 4S was estimated by IHS iSuppli, in October 2011, to be $ 188, $ 207 and $ 245, for the 16 GB, 32 GB and 64 GB models.  Labor costs are estimated between $ 12.50 and $ 30 per unit, with workers on the iPhone assembly line making $ 1.78 an hour. 
In February 2012, ComScore reported that 12.4% of US mobile subscribers used an iPhone.  Approximately 6.4 million iPhones are active in the US alone. 
On September 12, 2012, Apple announced the iPhone 5. It has a 4-inch display, up from its predecessors’ 3.5-inch screen. The device comes with the same 326 pixels per inch found in the iPhone 4 and 4S. The iPhone 5 has the SoC A6 processor, the chip is 22% smaller than the iPhone 4S ‘A5 and is twice as fast, doubling the graphics performance of its predecessor. The device is 18% thinner than the iPhone 4S, measuring 7.6 millimeters (0.3 in), and is 20% lighter at 112g (4 oz).
On July 6, 2013, it was reported that Apple was in talks with Korean mobile carrier SK Telecom to release the next generation iPhone with LTE Advanced Technology. 
On July 22, 2013, the company’s suppliers said that the iPhone and iPad “Apple has asked for prototype smartphone screens big 4 inches and has also asked for a new tablet device measuring slightly less than 13 inches diagonally, they said.” 
On September 10, 2013, Apple unveiled two new iPhone models during a highly anticipated press event in Cupertino. The iPhone 5C, a mid-range-priced version of the handset that is designed to increase its price is available in five colors (green, blue, yellow, pink, and white) and made of plastic. The iPhone 5S comes in three colors (black, white, and gold) and the home button is replaced with a fingerprint scanner (Touch ID). Both phones shipped on September 20, 2013. 
On September 9, 2014, Apple revealed the iPhone 6 and the iPhone 6 Plus at an event in Cupertino. Both devices had a larger screen than their predecessor, at 4.7 and 5.5 inches respectively. 
In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which added water and dust resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, and remove the 3.5mm headphone jack. [51 ]
On September 12, 2017, Apple officially unveiled the iPhone 8 and 8 Plus, which features a new glass design, camera improvements, a True Tone display, wireless charging and improved system performance. It also unveiled the iPhone X, which features a near-bezelless design, face recognition dubbed “Face ID” with facial tracking used for Animojis, an OLED screen with the highest pixel density on an iPhone, a new telephoto lens which works better in low light conditions, and improved cameras for AR
Up to the iPhone 4, all iPhone models, as well as other iOS devices were manufactured exclusively by Foxconn, based in Taiwan. In 2011, after Tim Cook became CEO of the company, Apple changed its outsourcing strategy, for its supply partners. The iPhone 4S in 2012 was the first model which was produced by simultaneously by two stand-alone companies: Foxconn as well as Pegatron, also based in Taiwan. Although Foxconn is still contributing to the big share of production, Pegatron’s orders have been slowly increased, with the company being tasked with the iPhone 5C line in 2013, and 30% of the iPhone 6 devices in 2014. The 6 Plus model is solely by Foxconn
iPhone Upgrade Program
The iPhone Upgrade Program is a 24-month program designed for consumers to be able to get the latest iPhone every year. The program consists of “low monthly payments”, where customers will gradually pay for the iPhone they have over 24-month period, with 12 months of payment passed after a new opportunity to switch. Once 12 months have passed, consumers can trade their current iPhone with a new one, and the payments are transferred from the old device to the new device, and the program “restarts” with a new 24-month period. 
Additional features of the program include unlocked handsets, which means consumers are free to pick up the network carrier they want, and 2-year AppleCare + protection, which includes “hardware repairs, software support, and coverage for up to two incidents of accidental damage”. 
The Huffington Post’s Damon Beres writing, “Complete the full 24-month payment cycle, and you’re stuck with an outdated phone. Every 12 months in the upgrade, and you’ll never have to stop owing Apple money for iPhones “. Additionally, the program is limited to just the iPhone hardware; cell phone service from a network operator is not included